Monday, 1 October 2012

Salivary Bioscience Research Series, "Know your Analyte" Cortisol


Salivary Cortisol:

Over the past 3 years, Cortisol and the effects of stress were on the cover of Newsweek, oral diagnostics was the focus of another major CNN news report, and hormones were the central topic of the Oprah Winfrey Show. 

In the U.S. experts are expounding on the association between salivary analytes and everything from weight gain to the ability to have healthy relationships.
At Salimetrics we are simultaneously buoyed and burdened by this. After 20 years of research involving development and integration of salivary assays into behavioral and health science, we think the field is ready to begin to translate what we have learned so it can benefit the world.
We suspect you concur and we're inviting you to assist us in speeding the research lifecycle by participating in our new initiatives to advance salivary analyte-based research: The Spit Report, Spit Camp, and a network of Centers and Laboratories of Excellence

Looking for previous studies: 


Cortisol


​Cortisol (hydrocortisone, Compound F) is the major glucocorticoid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is actively involved in the regulation of calcium absorption, blood pressure maintenance, anti-inflammatory function, gluconeogenesis, gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and immune function. (1,2,3) Cortisol production has a circadian rhythm. (4) Levels peak in the early morning and drop to the lowest concentration at night. (5) Levels rise independently of circadian rhythm in response to stress. (6) Increased cortisol production is associated with Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal tumors, while decreased cortisol production is associated with adrenal insufficiency (e.g., Addison’s disease) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. (7)

In the blood only 1 to 15% of cortisol is in its unbound or biologically active form. The remaining cortisol is bound to serum proteins. (8) Unbound serum cortisol enters the saliva via intracellular mechanisms, and in saliva the majority of cortisol remains unbound to protein. (9)

Salivary cortisol levels are unaffected by salivary flow rate or salivary enzymes. (10) Studies consistently report high correlations between serum and saliva cortisol, indicating that salivary cortisol levels reliably estimate serum cortisol levels. (11,12,13)




References

1. Migeon, C.J., & Lanes, R.L. (1990). Adrenal cortex: hypo- and hyperfunction. In F. Lifshitz (ed.), Pediatric endocrinology, a clinical guide (2nd ed.), (pp. 333-52). New York: Marcel Dekker.

2. Drucker, S., New, M.I. (1987).  Disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis. Pediatr Clin North Am, 34(4), 1055-66.

3. Fischbach, F.T. (1992). The manual of laboratory and diagnostic tests, (4th ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.

4. Dorn, L.D., Lucke, J.F., Loucks, T.L., Berga, S.L. (2007). Salivary cortisol reflects serum cortisol: analysis of circadian profiles. Ann Clin Biochem, 44(pt 3), 281-84.

5. Chernow, B., Alexander, H.R., Smallridge, R.C., et al. (1987). Hormonal responses to graded surgical stress. Arch Intern Med, 147(7), 1273-78.

6. Kreiger, D.T. (1975). Rhythms of ACTH and corticosteroid secretion in health and disease and their experimental modification. J Steroid Biochem, 6(5), 758-91.

7. Rothfield, B. (1974). Plasma cortisol. In: B. Rothfield (ed.), Nuclear medicine–in vitro (pp. 120-5). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

8. Robin, P., Predine, J., Milgrom, E. (1977). Assay of unbound cortisol in plasma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 46(2), 277-83.

9. Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Symons, R.G. (1983). Hormones in saliva: mode of entry and consequent implications for clinical interpretation. Clin Chem, 29(10), 1752-56.

10. Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A. (1987). The measurement of hormones in saliva: Possibilities and pitfalls. J Steroid Biochem, 27(1-3), 81-94.

11. Francis, S.J., Walker, R.F., Riad-Fahmy, D., et al. (1987). Assessment of adrenocortical activity in term newborn infants using salivary cortisol determinations. J of Pediatrics, 111, 129-33.

12. Hiramatsu, R. (1981). Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications. Clinica Chimica Acta, 117, 239-249.

13. Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Maksvytis, J.J., Ho, K.Y. (1983). Salivary cortisol: A better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol. Ann Clin Biochem, 20(pt 6), 329-35.

Link to Prof Douglas Granger Johns Hopkins University: Center Salivary Bioscience

Link to Westminster University Cortisol ResearchLink

Link to Prof Angela Clow, Westminster University Stress Research Papers: Link















Saliva Collection Methods


Intended Use: Adults, Children 6+, Expressed Samples

Passive Drool (PD):
Volume Capacity: 2mL
Ease of Use: Moderate
Passive drool is highly recommended because it is cost effective and approved for use with almost all analytes. To avoid problems with analyte retention or the introduction of contaminants, use only high quality polypropylene vials for collection.

Required Devices
Cryovials +Saliva Collection Aid +Bar-coded Labels +2 Storage Box

Intended Use: Adults, Children 6+

Salimetrics Oral Swab (SOS):
Volume Capacity: 2mL
Ease of Use: Simple
For many analytes, the Salimetrics Oral Swab (SOS) is an excellent alternative to passive drool because of its ease of use. The SOS also helps filter mucus and other matter from the sample, which may help improve immunoassay results.

Required Devices
SOS +SST +Bar-coded Labels +4 Storage Box

Intended Use: Children 6 months - 6 years

Salimetrics Children's Swab (SCS):
Volume Capacity: 2mL
Ease of Use: Simple
Manufactured with the same material as the SOS but in a longer length, the SCS features a thin diameter (8mm) to suit smaller mouths, and the durable polymer withstands chewing. The longer length allows one end to be held by a parent or technician while the other end is placed in the mouth. The SCS has the same freedom from interference and verified recoveries as our regular Salimetrics Oral Swab (SOS). Samples collected using the SCS can be tested for cortisol, cotinine, testosterone, SIgA, alpha-amylase, CRP and chromogranin A.

Required Devices
SCS +SST +Bar-coded Labels +4 Storage Box
 
Intended Use: Children <6 months

Salimetrics Infant's Swab (SIS):
Volume Capacity: 1mL
Ease of Use: Simple
Manufactured with the same material as the SOS but in a longer length, the SIS features a thin diameter (5mm) to suit the mouths of infants. The longer length allows one end to be held by a parent or technician, eliminating any choking hazard. The SIS has the same freedom from interference and verified recoveries as our regular SOS and SCS. Samples collected using the SIS can be tested for cortisol, cotinine, testosterone, SIgA, alpha-amylase, CRP and chromogranin A.

Required Devices
SIS +SST +Bar-coded Labels +4 Storage Box

Intended Use: Animals

Salimetrics Children's Swab (SCS):
Volume Capacity: 2mL
Ease of Use: Simple
Manufactured with the same material as the SOS but in a longer length, the SCS features a thin diameter (8mm) to suit smaller mouths, and the durable polymer withstands chewing. The longer length allows one end to be held by a parent or technician while the other end is placed in the mouth. The SCS has the same freedom from interference and verified recoveries as our regular Salimetrics Oral Swab (SOS). Samples collected using the SCS can be tested for cortisol, cotinine, testosterone, SIgA, alpha-amylase, CRP and chromogranin A.

To discuss the supply of Salimetrics Salivary Cortisol Assay or out Saliva Testing Service, Contact us:





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